Control system technology is the branch of engineering which deals with the principles of management theory, to design a system that gives yields the desired behaviour in a controlled manner. Hence, although control technology is often taught in electrical engineering in college, it is an interdisciplinary topic.
Control system engineers analyze, design, and optimize complex systems which include highly integrated coordination of mechanical, electric, chemical, metallurgical, electronic or pneumatic elements. Thus control engineering deals with a diverse assortment of dynamic systems including human and technological interfacing. These programs are broadly referred to as control systems.
The 2 methods of control system comprise classical strategies and contemporary techniques. The mathematical model of the system is installed as the very first step followed by analysis, testing and designing. Necessary conditions for the stability are assessed and finally, optimization follows.
In the classical method, mathematical modeling is usually done in the time domain, frequency domain name or complicated domain. The step response of a system would be mathematically modeled in time domain differential analysis to find its settling time,% Nominal, etc.. Laplace transforms are most commonly used from the frequency domain to find the open loop gain, phase margin, bandwidth of this system. The concept of the transfer function, Nyquist stability criteria, sampling of data, Nyquist plot, poles and zeros, Bode plots, system delays all come under the umbrella of classical control engineering stream.
Instead of transforming complex ordinary differential equations, modern strategy converts higher order equations to first order differential equations and solved with vector method.
Automated control systems are most frequently used as it doesn’t involve manual management. The controlled variable is quantified and compared with a specified value to obtain the desired outcome. As a result of automatic systems for control functions, the cost of energy or power, in addition to the price of the process, will be decreased increasing its productivity and quality.
History of Control Systems
The use of Automatic management system is thought to be in use from the ancient civilizations. Several varieties of water clocks were designed and implemented to measure the time right from the fifth century BC, by Greeks and Arabs. Nevertheless, the first automatic system is considered as the Watts Fly ball Governor in 1788, which started the industrial revolution. The mathematical modeling of Governor is analyzed by Maxwell in 1868. He started the business now called Honeywell.
The start of the 20th century is known as the golden era of control technology. In this period classical control methods had been developed in the Bell Laboratory from Hendrik Wade Bode and Harry Nyquist. Automatic controllers for steering ships were developed by Minorsky, Russian American Mathematician. He also introduced the Notion of Integral and Derivative Control in the 1920s. Meanwhile, the concept of stability was set forward by Nyquist and followed by Evans. The transforms were applied in management methods by Oliver Heaviside. Modern Control Techniques were developed after the 1950s by Rudolf Kalman, to overcome the restriction of classical Procedures. PLC’s were introduced in 1975